The Genome editing technology is a revolutionary advancement of very recent years that combines the principles of molecular biology and genetic engineering to generate precise targeted modification in the genome. Advent of novel approaches in the genome editing technologies employing designer nucleases have substantially improved our ability to make precise changes in the genomes of eukaryotic cells. Genome editing as an emerging technology has a high impact on our ability to decipher the function of gene both ;in vitro ;and ;in vivo ;either by gene insertion, deletion or gene mutation. This relatively recent technology is already broadening our ability to elucidate the contribution of genetics to disease by facilitating the creation of accurate cellular and animal models of pathological processes. A more striking potential application of genome editing is the potential to directly correct genetic mutations in affected tissues and cells thus keeping alive the hope of treating debilitating diseases that are refractory to traditional therapies.
“CRISPR” (pronounced “crisper”) stands for Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats, which are the hallmark of a bacterial defense system that forms the basis for the popular CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing technology.